Train driving licences and certificates


We've created a range of guides to explain the different responsibilities within the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations 2010 (TDLCR). 

We would like to remind operators to monitor the expiry dates on train driving licences, and apply for renewals (providing all conditions are maintained) in advance of the expiry date to ensure the driver's licence retains validity.

Full details of the renewal process are in the drop-down tab called 'Renewing Train Driving Licences' directly below.

Our guides provide comprehensive information on all aspects of the TDLCR.

We have also published a key facts leaflet for train drivers.

The Railway Safety and Standards Board has published a number of Railway Industry Standards that are relevant to the TDLCR and these are referred to in our guides above.

We are currently undertaking a post implementation review on behalf of the Secretary of State to consider whether the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations 2010 (as amended) remain fit for purpose and are achieving their original objectives. The PIR will be completed by 21 May 2023. Our review is being overseen by the Department for Transport.

Why do we have licensing and certification for train drivers?

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TDLCR (as amended) introduced the requirements of European Directives 2007/59/EC on the certification of train drivers and 2014/82/EU (the amending directive) in Great Britain. It also brought in a licensing and certification system for mainline train drivers. Together these Directives are part of the European Commission’s plan to make Europe’s railways more efficient and competitive.

The TDLCR aims to:

  • make it easier to operate cross-border rail services
  • create a more flexible job market for train drivers
  • introduce consistent standards for drivers across Europe
  • increase public confidence in the rail system

Who issues and enforces train driving licences?

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The ORR is the “competent authority” for train driving licencing and certification.  We are the National Safety Authority in Great Britain, although there's a separate system in Northern Ireland.

We believe that the best way of making sure drivers remain competent is through operator safety management systems. We usually issue licences based on evidence supplied by train operators. However, we will still use our own safety certification and inspection systems to assure that train operators' arrangements for competence and fitness are good enough.

See our health and safety enforcement policy statement.

What are the train driving licence and certificate?

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The train driving licence is a document issued by us to the train driver once the train driver has passed the necessary general professional competence, medical and occupational psychological fitness examinations. The licence is valid for 10 years and is the personal property of the train driver until it expires or is suspended or withdrawn. A valid train driving licence remains valid even when the train driver changes employer.

The certificate is issued to the train driver by their employer and details the types of rolling stock which the driver may drive, and the infrastructure which the driver can drive trains over. Although the train driver holds the certificate, the certificate is the property of the employer. We have produced model copies of the certificate and the certified copy to download for when a train driver leaves employment.

Does the TDLCR apply to all railway undertakings and infrastructure managers?

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The TDLCR apply to railway undertakings and infrastructure managers who are required to hold a safety certificate or a safety authorisation under ROGS. If this is the case, you must make sure that the drivers who you employ to drive on the mainline railway meet the requirements of TDLCR.

TDLCR do not apply to drivers employed to work only:

  • in engineering possessions;
  • on metros (for example, London Underground), tramways or other light rail systems;
  • for heritage operations (as classified under ROGS); and
  • in depots (see the operator guide for more information).

Cross-border train driving guidance

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The Train Driving Licences and Certificates (Amendment) Regulations 2022

A Statutory Instrument (SI) regarding the legal requirement to hold train driving licences to operate in the UK section of the Channel Tunnel zone came into force on 31 January 2022. This makes provisions for specific operations between the UK and France, in particular enabling some operators to revert to their train drivers being legally required to hold one train driving licence for travel through the concession/fixed link area of the Channel Tunnel. Further detail can be found at:

Our cross-border train driving document provides guidance on meeting the requirements of The Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations 2010 (as amended) solely in relation to cross-border train driving from 1 February 2022.

Overseas drivers

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Professional Qualifications Act 2022 

ORR is required to conform with the requirements of Section 8 of the Professional Qualifications Act 2022 (the PQ Act). This includes publishing information on the qualifications and experience an individual must obtain to become entitled to practice train driving in Great Britain, among other areas.

In Great Britain, the requirements for obtaining a train driving licence are set out in the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations 2010 (TDLCR 2010), and licences are issued by the Office of Rail and Road (ORR). 

In Northern Ireland, the requirements are set out in the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2010 (TDLCRNI 2010) and regulated by the Northern Ireland Department for Infrastructure (NIDFI). 

These regulations are substantially derived from Directive 2007/59/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the certification of train drivers operating locomotives and trains on the railway system in the Community (as amended). 

ORR publishes information on the requirements for obtaining a train driving licence.

The PQ Act also requires ORR to publish information on the number of people from overseas and Northern Ireland seeking to enter the profession in Britain. This information will be published periodically on ORR's website.

Making a licence application

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Train Operators generally apply for licences on behalf of their drivers. These applications should be submitted via ORR’s online Train Driving Licence application system as this will speed up the process of issuing the licence. We have published guidance on using this system.

If you need more information on the application process, please email TDL Applications.

Renewing train driving licences

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The Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations (TDLCR) 2010 provide that licences are valid for a maximum of 10 years. Therefore, as a licence expiry date approaches, train operators should read our form and then submit it on behalf of the driver.

There is no limit in respect of how far in advance of expiry a licence can be renewed. We will process complete applications within one calendar month. However, we suggest applying in a timely manner as, in our experience, incomplete applications can affect processing times. A driver must be in possession of their licence at all times when driving a train.

Completed application forms and all attachments should be emailed to

Licence suspension and withdrawal

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ORR may suspend or withdraw a train driving licence if it has sufficient evidence that the train driver no longer meets the licence conditions set out in the TDLCR. A train driver may decide to appeal to the Secretary of State for Transport against our decision to suspend or withdraw a licence. For more information on this process, please contact the Department for Transport.

We have published a pro-forma for employers of train drivers to submitting information to us that may affect the validity of a licence.

Train driver certificate appeals

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Drivers can appeal against the decision of a railway undertaking or infrastructure manager (under Regulation 36 of TDLCR) not to issue a train driver certificate, or to update or renew it. The appeal can also be made if the certificate is suspended or withdrawn. The company's internal appeal procedure must be used before ORR would consider any appeal. We have published guidance on the ORR appeal process which includes an application form. Applications should be emailed to TDL Applications or sent to the address in the guide.

Recognition of recognised persons – doctors, psychologists and training & examination centres

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Under the TDLCR, persons carrying out:

  • medical fitness examinations of train drivers;
  • occupational psychological fitness examinations of train drivers; or
  • training and examinations for  professional knowledge and competence of train drivers;
    must apply to be recognised by ORR for entry on to our registers..

We have produced application forms for doctors or psychologists who wish to be included on  ORR’s registers and these will help you provide the evidence to support a recognition application. See our separate guides above for more information.

Registers of recognised persons – doctors, psychologists and training & examination centres

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ORR is required by the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations 2010 to hold and keep up to date a register of persons we have recognised as competent to carry out the medical and occupational psychological fitness examinations for train drivers.

Our guidance on the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regulations 2010: A guide to the occupational psychological fitness and medical requirements (paragraphs 4.2 and 4.4) set out the criteria for recognition and these must continue to be met in order to remain on our registers (see para 4.12 of our guidance document).

ORR maintains registers of recognised persons as required by the TDLCR and you can find out who is recognised from these registers below:

Train driving licences and data protection

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Please see our privacy notice about data protection and train driving licences.